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What is Linen? – A Guide to The Unique Fabric

In the diverse world of textiles, there are individuals who adore the luxurious feel of silk, others who value the practicality of polyester, and those who are captivated by the simplicity and uniqueness of linen. Are you familiar with linen? Is linen a good fabric? What is linen used for? We have thoughtfully crafted this guide to help you swiftly grasp all there is to know about linen. 

What is Linen?

Linen is a natural fabric woven from flax fibers, which are among the earliest natural textile fibers used by humans. Linen fabric is highly durable and possesses excellent moisture-wicking and breathability properties. 

It has a naturally simplistic color, making it suitable for those seeking garments with a pure aesthetic. Dyed or printed linen can maintain vibrant colors for an extended period, making it versatile for various purposes.

Linen is often compared to cotton due to their shared similarities and differences. In the following content, you will find a comparison of their characteristics. However, a significant similarity between linen and cotton is that higher quality is associated with higher thread count.

A higher thread count indicates finer flax fibers, resulting in a softer and smoother fabric. The international standard for measuring linen’s thread count commonly uses the term “lea,” allowing you to assess the quality of linen based on the numerical value preceding “lea.”

What is the History of Linen?

“Woven moonlight” is an alternative name that ancient Egyptians used to describe linen. They believed it to be a fabric woven from moonlight, evoking a sense of extraordinary beauty and reflecting the natural purity of linen.

As the oldest surviving textile fiber, linen has a rich history dating back over 30,000 years to the Paleolithic era. People cultivated flax along the Nile River in ancient Egypt and treasured it as a valuable resource. It found use not only in clothing production but also in wrapping mummies and even as a form of currency.

Over time, linen spread to Europe, becoming a prominent presence in the grand halls of Roman emperors and the everyday lives of people. During Napoleon’s reign, linen products held great significance as essential dowry items in French society.

In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, linen emerged as one of Europe’s most important textiles, with linen production becoming a vital industry in countries like Ireland, Belgium, and the Netherlands. In 1810, a Frenchman named Philippe Henri de Girard introduced the wet spinning technique, revolutionizing the practical applications of linen in people’s lives.

Today, linen remains highly coveted for its timeless beauty and natural qualities. It is sought after in high-end fashion as well as for home goods. Not only is linen durable, but it is also a sustainable choice, making it an ideal fabric option for environmentally conscious individuals.

What is Linen Made of?

Linen is derived from the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum. Flax possesses slender stems that serve as the raw material for fabric production. Typically growing to about half the height of a person, it produces delicate blue flowers that sway gracefully in the breeze.

This plant boasts greater sustainability than cotton, as its growth relies solely on natural conditions without the need for pesticides or irrigation.  However, it thrives in moist and cool environments, giving Western European countries a significant advantage in linen production. France, the Netherlands, and Belgium alone account for 60% of global linen production.

While Europe remains the primary source of top-quality linen, China has emerged as an important player in the global linen market, thanks to its abundant labor resources and modernized industry.

How is Linen Made?

1. Harvesting

The temperate maritime climate in Europe provides ideal conditions for flax growth. Flax is sown in April, and after approximately 100 days of growth, it is ready for harvest. Harvesting machines are typically used to uproot the flax plants since the roots are an integral part of the raw material.

2. Dew-retting

After harvesting, flax is typically spread out in fields for dew-retting, utilizing sunlight, rainwater, and dew. This process takes around 15-25 days and aims to separate the flax fibers from the epidermis and woody core through the fermentation action of microorganisms. The resulting flax fibers have an earthy color, giving them a rustic appearance.

Alternatively, harvested flax plants can be soaked in water to expedite the retting process, allowing the flax fibers to absorb water and soften, preparing them for subsequent processing.

3. Scutching

Flax contains pectin, necessitating a process to remove the gums during fiber harvesting. While chemical methods are available, mechanical methods are now widely utilized to minimize pollution and chemical residues. Machinery is used to scutch the flax fibers, employing cutting and friction to eliminate the gums. This method is more environmentally friendly.

Next, machines comb the fibers to further separate them, eliminating impurities and short fibers. Experienced workers then grade the flax fibers based on their softness, color, strength, and uniformity.

4. Spinning and Weaving

Flax fibers can be spun into yarn using three methods. The finest fibers are typically wet-spun, transforming long and fine fibers into smoother yarn. Shorter fibers are semi-wet-spun or dry-spun, resulting in yarns with a more textured feel. The spun yarn is then woven into various types of linen fabric.

5. Finishing

Linen fabric may have natural slubs on its surface, which workers inspect and treat to achieve a smoother appearance. However, some small slubs are unavoidable and contribute to the unique texture of linen fabric.

Linen fabric has a natural color that exudes a rustic charm. Of course, it can also be dyed or printed to redefine its appearance. Finally, the finished linen is crafted into specific products, such as clothing and curtains, that are commonly used.

What are the Types of Linen?

Linen fabric encompasses four main types: plain weave linen, damask linen, loosely woven linen, and tightly woven linen. Let’s take a brief look at each of them.

Plain Weave Linen

Plain weave linen is crafted using a simple technique, resulting in a fabric that feels natural and rustic. It offers a range of weight options, allowing you to choose lightweight, heavier, or more textured plain weave linen to complement your designs or balance your wardrobe. This type of linen is commonly used in the production of clothing and home goods.

Damask Linen

Damask linen is a fabric created using special techniques, showcasing intricate and refined patterns with a textured touch. Floral motifs, geometric designs, and more can adorn its surface, and the patterns are reversible. This exquisite linen fabric finds frequent use in the fashion industry and is favored for creating luxurious and high-end interior decor.

Loosely Woven Linen

Loosely woven linen features wider spacing between the warp and weft threads, resulting in a more relaxed and casual style. While it may be more prone to wrinkling and stretching, it offers unparalleled breathability and a unique character. Loosely woven linen is commonly employed in crafting lightweight clothing and items such as tablecloths and curtains.

Tightly Woven Linen

Tightly woven linen boasts closely spaced warp and weft threads, yielding a smooth and dense fabric that is highly durable. It is an ideal choice for interior decorations, as its close weave ensures resistance to wear and deformation even with heavy use. Additionally, tightly woven linen is well-suited to crafting sturdy garments that require durability.

For more detailed information, please refer to our Linen Types Guide, where you can explore the various types and gain further knowledge.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Linen

Pros of Linen:

  • Unique Texture – Linen fabric possesses a natural and irregular texture, providing a distinctive and refreshing tactile experience.
  • Naturally Hypoallergenic – Derived from the flax plant, linen is free from chemicals and boasts natural antibacterial properties, fostering a healthier environment.
  • Breathable – As a plant-based fiber, linen offers inherent breathability, allowing for air circulation through the gaps between yarns.
  • Moisture Absorption – Linen fibers exhibit exceptional moisture-wicking properties, aiding in keeping the body dry and enhancing comfort.
  • Durable – Linen fabric enjoys a well-deserved reputation for its strength and resilience, effortlessly withstanding daily wear and tear without losing its shape.
  • Antistatic – Linen fabric effectively minimizes static buildup and clinging, ensuring a clean and comfortable experience.
  • Environmentally Friendly – Linen is sustainably sourced, and its production process avoids the use of chemicals, contributing to environmental preservation.

Cons of Linen:

  • Prone to Wrinkling – Linen fabric necessitates regular ironing to maintain a smooth appearance.
  • Initial Stiffness – Initially, linen fabric may feel stiff but gradually softens with each wash.
  • Higher Cost – Extracting linen fibers involves significant labor, and the limited supply of flax contributes to higher production costs.
  • Challenging to Dye – The unique surface texture of linen fabric can result in uneven dye absorption.
  • Not resistant to acid and alkali – The fabric is susceptible to damage when in contact with acid and alkali substances.

What is Linen Used for?

The numerous benefits of linen fabric support its versatility for a variety of purposes. Do you have any great ideas? If not, you can refer to the following list to explore the versatility of linen fabric in our daily lives:

Clothing: Shirts, dresses, suits, jackets, pants, vests, casual wear, underwear, pajamas, and more.

Bedding: Sheets, pillowcases, duvet covers, bedspreads, and more.

Accessories: Scarves, handkerchiefs, bags, hats, and more.

Home Furnishings: Towels, bath towels, kitchen towels, pillow covers, curtains, tablecloths, napkins, and more.

DIY Projects: Crafts, embroidery, sewing, quilting, and more.

Linen fabric offers a wide range of possibilities in these applications, making it a versatile choice for various aspects of our everyday lives.

How to Wash Linen Fabric?

To clean linen fabric effectively, follow these guidelines:

  • Separate items to prevent potential damage.
  • Choose between machine washing or hand washing based on the care instructions.
  • Use cool water and a mild detergent for optimal results.
  • After removing excess water, lay the fabric flat or hang it to dry, avoiding direct sunlight.
  • If necessary, you can lightly steam iron the slightly damp fabric.
  • Store linen in a cool, dry place to prevent yellowing.

Does Linen Shrink?

Linen fabric has the tendency to shrink, especially when exposed to heat or moisture. However, by employing proper care methods, you can minimize shrinkage. It is recommended to use cold water or water below 35-40 degrees Celsius and avoid harsh detergents, among other precautions.

Linen vs Cotton

Linen and cotton both come from natural plants, with linen using the stem fibers of the plant and cotton sourced from cotton bolls. However, this distinction doesn’t affect the comfortable and skin-friendly experience provided by both materials. 

Let’s compare linen and cotton based on their fabric characteristics and analyze the differences between them:

  • Texture and Appearance: Linen has an uneven texture, giving it a more casual and stylish look. Cotton, on the other hand, appears more uniform, smooth, and even softer than linen.
  • Breathability: Both fabrics are known for their high breathability, with linen allowing for better airflow, resulting in a cooler feel during hot weather. Cotton’s breathability can be influenced by different weaving techniques.
  • Absorbency: Cotton has superior water absorption compared to linen, but it tends to retain moisture for longer, leading to a damp feeling on the skin. Linen, which is ideal for making towels, quickly absorbs and releases moisture, facilitating faster drying.
  • Durability: Linen is generally more durable than cotton and becomes even softer with use and washing. Cotton, due to its shorter fibers, may experience pilling or damage after prolonged use.
  • Wrinkling: Both fabrics are prone to wrinkling to some extent, with linen exhibiting more noticeable wrinkles. Cotton tends to wrinkle when damp. Ironing can help reduce wrinkles for both fabrics.
  • Environmental Impact: Linen is considered more environmentally friendly as its cultivation requires minimal pesticide and fertilizer use and consumes less energy. Cotton cultivation demands significant water and pesticide usage, resulting in irreversible environmental damage.


What color is linen fabric?

Linen fabric naturally has a light or earthy color, which is inherent to its raw materials and production process. However, it can also be dyed and printed according to your design preferences.

How much does linen fabric cost?

The price of linen fabric is influenced by various factors such as quality, weaving technique, and brand. Generally, due to its higher production costs, it is not priced too low and tends to be more expensive than cotton. However, there can be exceptions such as market fluctuations in supply and demand. It is advisable to inquire about pricing from the supplier before making a purchase.

Is linen a good fabric?

Yes, linen is a high-quality fabric. It has a unique appearance while being breathable and moisture-wicking. Additionally, it is highly durable and becomes even softer with each wash. Therefore, linen is an excellent choice for our daily lives.

How to dye linen fabric?

Linen fabric may have small slubs on the surface, which can result in uneven or lightly speckled dyeing. Moreover, the irregular fiber structure of linen can affect dye absorption. This necessitates pre-treatment before dyeing and the careful selection of suitable dyes. For instance, pre-washing and tumble-drying the linen fabric, as well as using reactive dyes, can significantly improve the dyeing results.

Where Can I Buy Linen Fabric?

In today’s fashion-conscious world, unique linen can provide a distinct visual appeal. You can buy your preferred linen fabric at fabric stores, specialty stores, or trade shows. At Sinosilk, we offer linen and silk linen fabrics for pillowcases, scarves, tea towels, and apparel, which can be dyed and printed.

We also provide direct customization services for linen scarves, linen bandanas, linen pillowcases, and more, bringing your designs to life on linen. If you’re interested, please don’t hesitate to contact us.

More Resources:

What is Silk – Source: Sinosilk

What is Cotton – Source: Sinosilk

What is Bamboo Fabric – Source: Sinosilk

What is the Most Breathable Fabric – Source: Sinosilk

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